Most components of lithium-ion batteries can be recycled. Energy storage systems, usually batteries, are essential for electric drive vehicles such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs). Most plug-in hybrids and all-electric vehicles use lithium-ion batteries like these. Most of today's and use lithium-ion batteries, though the exact chemistry often varies from that of consumer electronics batteries. Lead-acid batteries can be designed to be high power and are inexpensive, safe, and reliable. Nickel-metal hydride batteries have a much longer life cycle than lead-acid batteries and are safe and abuse tolerant. These batteries have been used successfully in and are widely used in. Advanced high-power lead-acid batteries are being developed, but these batteries are only used in commercially available electric drive vehicles for ancillary loads.
Is ongoing to reduce cost and extend their useful life cycle. Alternative energy research paper outline. Lithium-ion batteries are currently used in most portable consumer electronics such as cell phones and laptops because of their high energy per unit mass relative to other electrical energy storage systems. They also have a high power-to-weight ratio, high energy efficiency, good high-temperature performance, and low self-discharge. The main challenges with nickel-metal hydride batteries are their high cost, high self-discharge and heat generation at high temperatures, and the need to control hydrogen loss. However, low specific energy, poor cold-temperature performance, and short calendar and cycle life impede their use.